Saddam Hussein forcibly urbanised much of Iraq, especially in Kurdistan as part of the Anfal. Scattered villages and old towns were difficult to control, and replaced with high-security complexes.
Called "mujamma'at" in Arabic, these collective towns testify to the unfathomable impact of the genocide. The traditional way of life was uprooted and replaced with these sterile, harsh centers.
However, aside from the loss of life, property, culture, and tradition that was part of their establishment, understanding their history and characteristics helps deeply understand Kurdistan today.